KVM和OpenVZ类型VPS有什么区别?

Kevin 教程 1,835 次浏览 38条评论

简而概之,作为现时主流的两种主机虚拟化技术。KVM是基于内核的虚拟化运行,在功能应用方面没有限制,稳定性较佳。OpenVZ则是一种容器式的虚拟机,与Linux主机共用内核。具有高扩展性、较少硬件消耗和资源集中管理的优势,但也存在不支持部分软件,无法更新虚拟机内核的劣势。

KVM与OpenVZ虚拟机对比
KVM OpenVZ
虚拟化类型 硬件辅助虚拟化(由硬件提供结构支持,通过Linux内核KVM模块创建虚拟机器监视器,从而建立与执行虚拟机。虚拟机操作系统以独立方式运行) 操作系统层虚拟化(采用经修改的Linux内核在操作系统层进行虚拟化,虚拟机与宿主机使用同样系统内核,但虚拟机隔离环境可运行不同Linux发行版)
典型应用场景 虚拟化服务器隔离,服务器/桌面整合,软件开发,云计算等 虚拟化服务器隔离
宿主机运行开销 由于KVM虚拟化程度较高,宿主机资源开销高于OpenVZ 宿主机性能利用率高,相同配置下能提供更大虚拟机密度,降低运行成本
宿主机处理器 x86, x86-64, IA-64, 支持Intel VT或AMD-V的x86, s390, ARM, PowerPC x86, x86-64, IA-64, PowerPC 64, SPARC64
宿主机操作系统 Linux, FreeBSD, illumos Linux
虚拟机操作系统 Linux, Windows, FreeBSD,, Solaris, Plan 9 Linux
虚拟机系统环境 KVM属于全系统虚拟化架构,没有功能或软件限制,可玩性高 能满足绝大部分使用需求。受限内核共用且不能更新,因此不支持某些软件
适用人群 追求完整虚拟机运行环境和使用权限,不希望遇到潜在软件兼容性问题 追求性价比,不喜折腾,虚拟机能运行常规任务即满足需求
对比总结 无论KVM或是OpenVZ类型VPS,本质上没有绝对优劣之分。两者追求取舍有别,KVM提供更好的虚拟机系统环境,OpenVZ能充分利用主机资源。两种虚拟化技术都提供资源控制策略,理想状态下可以平衡资源利用率与虚拟机使用体验。
现实中VPS是否好用,需要考虑商家运营态度。若商家过于逐利,超售就很难避免了,最终会影响虚拟机用户使用。作为用户选择,售价始终是重要的参考。OpenVZ比较KVM容易超售,普遍价格会便宜一些。KVM被越来越多商家所采用,是目前主流的VPS类型。

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